Government Accounting Office (GAO) Report (March 2018)
- Black boys experienced 18% out-of-school suspensions compared to 6.8% for Hispanic and 5.2% for White boys. These patterns were similar in Magnet and Charter schools.
- Boys as a group were overrepresented while girls were underrepresented among students disciplined across six types of disciplinary actions.
- The rank order of suspensions for boys was Black–18%, Native American–11%, two or more races-10%, Hispanic-6.8%, White-5.2%, and Asian-2.9%.
- Black students accounted for 19% of all pre-school students, but 47% of those suspended from pre-school.
Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States (March 2018)
- The Black-White income gap is entirely driven by differences in men’s not women’s outcomes.
- Within low-poverty areas, Black-White gaps are smallest in places with low levels of racial bias among Whites and high rates of father presence among Blacks.
- Black boys who move to better neighborhoods as children have significantly better outcomes. Boys benefit more than girls from attention and resources.
- Initiatives to increase mentoring programs, to reduce racial bias among Whites, to reduce discrimination in criminal justice, and to facilitate greater positive interaction across racial groups are a valuable path to increasing upward mobility opportunities.
Ref. Race and Economic Opportunity in the U.S., Chetty, Hendren, Jones, & Porter
ALICE, Asset Limited, Income, Constrained, Employed, Research Study, 2009-2014
- Households with income above federal poverty level but below the basic cost of living
- More than 1/3 households live in poverty or are designated ALICE households in U.S.
- In Maryland, 745,738 households, 35%, struggle to afford basic necessities
- In Maryland, 2 adults with 2 young children need $61,224 ($31/hour) to manage
- In Howard County, 109,651 are in the Poverty and ALICE category; 22% (2014 data)
- ALICE= cost of living outpaces wages & jobs, not near affordable housing or child care
- Young children in these households are deficient in basics and not ready for school
Ref. ALICE, Study of Financial Hardship, United Way, MD, Fall 2016
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)
- ACEs are potentially traumatic experiences and events that can have negative lasting effects on health and well-being in childhood and throughout life.
- Early childhood experiences have a tremendous impact on future behavior, lifelong health, and opportunity.
- Economic hardship and divorce or separation of a parent or guardian are the most common ACEs reported nationally in all states.
- Nationally, 61% of Black and 51% Hispanic children have experienced one ACE compared to 40% White and 23% among Asians.
- Increasingly, sustained childhood poverty is being considered an adverse experience.
Ref. About Adverse Childhood Experiences, CDC, 2017